The Disease – Temporal Displacement
I learned through watching the re-run of ‘The Lie’ from the information box, the disease affecting Charlotte and what ‘the losties’ will eventually become afflicted with is called Temporal Displacement. It is when the mind cannot distinguish between the past, present and the future.
The symptoms are headaches, nosebleeds, dizziness and memory loss. When it becomes severe, the blood vessels in the brain burst, causing death.
This sounds very similar to what Minkowski and Desmond were suffering from. Perhaps, there are other mitigating circumstances in certain individuals which effect them faster than others.